International Workshop: "Nominalization and Noun modification"

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San Francisco State University

Room 587, Humanities Building

San Francisco, CA 94960

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This workshop brings together efforts of two Japan-based research groups concerned with the phenomena of noun modification. The project “Noun modifying expressions” (PI: Prashant Pardeshi, NINJAL) explores the typology of noun modifying structures and their geographic distribution, while the project “Explorations of functional grammar in terms of nominalization phenomena” (PI: Sung-Yeo Chung, Osaka University) investigates, among others, the role of nominalizations in noun modification. This workshop aims at crossfertalization of ideas from these two research teams toward better understandings of the nature of noun modifying structures and their typology.


Humanities Symposium Room, Room 587
Talk 1: 10:30 to 11:30
Masayoshi Shibatani: The grammar of noun modification: Beyond Teramura's internal and external relations

Talk 2: 11:30 to 12:15
Sung-Yeo Chung: Nominal-based nominalization in Korean

Talk 3: 12:15 to 13:00
Shigeyuki Tamura: Nominalization and noun modification in Central Alaskan Yup’ik and related typological implications

13:00 to 14:00: LUNCH

Talk 4: 14:00-14:45
Marathi’s Prenominal Noun-modifying Constructions: Their Protean Functions and Diverse Morphologies

Peter Hook (University of Virginia) and Prashant Pardeshi (NINJAL)

In our presentation we show that depending on their syntactic and semantic functions prenominal modifying constructions in Marathi are based either on participials or nominalizations. Relativizations on the 6 or 7 positions studied and hierarchized by Keenan and Comrie (1977) are rendered with participial phrases. Relativizations on adjuncts [non-subcategorized elements] find expression either as participials or nominalizations. Noun complement clauses are rendered with nominalizations [rarely as participials]. Hybrids ('the X that Y said he'd buy') are expressed as participials. This choice of morphologies in Marathi contrasts with its Dravidians neighbors to the south [only participial] and with Nepali and T-B languages to the north [mostly nominalizational]. In languages spoken in the central and northwestern parts of India, viz. Hindi-Urdu and Kashmiri use participials for only the first two positions on the NPAH; in general post-nominal constructions in jo serve for the other positions. For noun complements, either nominalizations or ki-clauses are used.

Talk 5: 14:45 to 15:30
Kaoru Horie: Functional utility of noun modification and nominalization relative to renyō shūshoku setsu (‘predicate modification clauses’): A comparative study

15:30-16:00: BREAK

Talk 6: 16:00 to 16:45
Yoshiko Matsumoto: General noun-modifying clause constructions in Japanese

16:45-17:30: Discussion

17:30 - 18:30 : Closing followed by Reception

18:30: DINNER


Talk 1
The grammar of noun modification: Beyond Teramura’s internal and external relations
Masayoshi Shibatani (Rice University)

Understanding “what it means in general to say that a verb or adjective modifies a noun” was one of the goals aimed at by Teramura’s (1975-1978) influential work on the grammar of noun modification in Japanese. Toward this end, Teramura recognizes two types of modification structure characterized in terms of “internal and external relations” that the head noun is claimed to hold with regard to the modifying structure. While Teramura’s distinction, paralleling that drawn between relative clauses and content clauses in traditional grammar, provides a framework useful in cataloging Japanese noun modifying structures, his study falls far short of the intended goal set out at the beginning. The nominalization-based analysis of noun modification structures advanced in a series of publications by Shibatani (2009, 2017, 2018) not only reveals fundamental flaws in the thinking behind the traditional approaches, including Teramura’s (e.g. the idea that “a verb or adjective modifies a noun” as in the quote above), but also deepens our understandings of the nature of restrictive and non-restrictive (or appositive) modification, which Teramura’s study fails to clarify. A proper understanding of noun modification in terms of nominalization structures leads to a new analysis of other types of modifiers such as nouns, numerals, and adjectives.

Talk 2
Nominal-based nominalization in Korean
Sung-Yeo Chung (Osaka University)

As revealed in Shibatani (2014, 2017) and Shibatani & Chung (2017), the nominal-based nominalization is a phenomenon that occurs widely across different languages. Nevertheless, little attention has been paid to this phenomenon so far. In this presentation, I focus on the N-based nominalization in Korean, and discuss the following two forms, -s and -i.

As in the case of the genitive or possessive forms in other languages, which Shibatani reanalyzes as N-based nominalizations, the -s suffix in Korean has been called "genitive" or Saisiot (-s between noun and noun), and the past studies have focused only on the function and usage of -s in the noun-modification context. In this presentation I will demonstrate that there were more widespread uses of s-marked nouns as the head of a noun phrase (i.e., NP-use) in Middle Korean (15C-16C), with some remnants in Modern Korean. Based on this observation, I will explore the relationship between the NP-use of -s and its modification use in compound words (noun-s-noun) found in Modern Korean.

As for -i, traditional Korean studies recognize two different forms, one a suffixal -i that attaches to nouns, and the other a formal noun that attaches to verbal-based nominalizations in NP-use. However, recognizing N-based nominalizations permits a unified account for these two instances of the -i suffix. Shibatani’s (2017) work demonstrates that a nominalizer for N-based nominalizations may be recycled as a marker of the NP-use of nominalizations. I will explore this possibility for both -i and -s, whereby their function as markers of the NP-use of V-based nominalizations is hypothesized to be a result of a functional expansion of the nominalizers for N-based nominalization.

Talk 3
Nominalization and Noun Modification in Central Alaskan Yup'ik and Related Typological Implications
Shigeyuki Tamura (Osaka University)

Based on a series of studies of nominalization by Shibatani (2009, 2014, 2017), this presentation attempts to characterize the major properties observed in nominalization and noun modification in Central Alaskan Yup'ik (CAY). Comparing the characteristics of lexical noun formation and appositive construction, on one hand, with those observed in its adjective and relative-clause counterparts on the other hand, we point out that CAY shows no special coding strategy for its adjective and relative clause counterparts. This suggests that in CAY, lexical nominalization and grammatical nominalization should be regarded as a unitary phenomenon, which follows Shibatani's theory of nominalization. With these essential observations about CAY nominalization, we further discuss the two issues of (i) what type of relativization strategy CAY would be grouped into following Comrie's (2006) classification and (ii) why CAY almost entirely fails to show any Asian type of "attributive" modification.

Talk 4
Hybrid Prenominal Participial Phrases: Relativization across noun-complement clauses in Japanese and the languages of South Asia with a first look at their geo-typology
Peter Hook (University of Michigan) and Prashant Pardeshi (NINJAL)

Our paper will first present a brief overview of types of noun-modification in South Asian languages (Marathi, Hindi-Urdu, and Nepali) and then proceed to define and exemplify hybrid PPPs as in (1) and (2):
(1) kau to it-ta kuruma deshita kara…[Japanese]
 buy Quot say-PstPrt car was because
‘Because it was a car that I said that I would buy.’
(2) ti kāḷi surekh māmā-ni ghe-in mhaṭ-leli gāḍi... [Marathi]
that black beautiful Uncle-Erg take-Fut1sg said-PstPrt car...
 ‘that beautiful black car that Uncle said I [= he] will buy ...’

The past participle of {say} in these two examples introduces a noun-complement clause (NCC) in which is embedded the gap that is co-referential with the noun {car} that the NCC "modifies". Of interest is the unusual semantics of a PPP {said-PstPrt} that is a morphosyntactic appendage to noun that has nothing to do with communication.

This type of hybrid PPP has entered the Indo-Aryan arena on the south in Marathi and Konkani (calqued on Dravidian?) and on the north in Nepali (calqued on T-B languages?). Hindi-Urdu - spoken in the central regions of India - has [so far] resisted its encroachment.

Talk 5
Functional utility of noun modification and nominalization relative to renyō shūshoku setsu (‘predicate modification clauses’): A comparative study
Kaoru Horie (Nagoya University)

Traditional Japanese grammar makes a two-way distinction of complex sentences into rentai shūshoku setsu (‘noun modifying clauses’) and renyō shūshoku setsu (‘predicate modification clauses’) which cross-cuts the three-way general linguistic/typological distinction of subordinate clauses and “coordinate” clauses. The former corresponds to relative and noun complement clauses, while the latter corresponds to adverbial and co(sub)ordinate clauses.

Okutsu (2007) notes that occasionally rentai shūshoku setsu (‘noun modifying clauses’) in Japanese can syntactically alternate with renyō shūshoku setsu (‘predicate modification clauses’) and encode truth-functionally similar meanings, as shown in (1a) and (1b):
(1a) [Te-o ageta] kodomotati-ga oodan hodoo-o watat-te iru.
hand-ACC raise-PST children-NOM sidewalk-ACC cross-PROG
‘The children who raise their hands are crossing the sidewalk.’
(1b) Kodomotati-ga te-o age-te oodan hodoo-o watat-te iru.
children-NOM hand-ACC raise-CONJ sidewalk-ACC cross-PROG
‘The children are crossing the street, raising their hands.’
Inspired by Okutsu’s observation, this study looks into the range of functional utility of noun modifying (relative-like) and nominalized (complement-like) structures relative to renyō shūshoku setsu (‘predicate modification clauses’) in Japanese and other languages.

Okutsu, Keiichiro. 2007. Rentai soku renyō? Nihongo no kihon kōzō to shosō.
(‘Noun modification is predicate modification? Basic structures in Japanese and
their dimensions’) Tokyo: Hituzi publishers.

Talk 6
General Noun-Modifying Clause Constructions in Japanese
Yoshiko Matsumoto (Stanford University)

Observations on “verbal-based grammatical nominalization” (e.g. Shibatani, 2017) are mostly shared with the concerns and findings of studies of the General Noun-Modifying Clause Construction (GNMCC) (e.g. Mastumoto, Comrie, and Sells, 2017) and of the frame-semantics and construction grammar-based analysis of Japanese noun-modifying constructions (e.g. Matsumoto, 1997). This talk presents the framework of the GNMCC study and the phenomena observed in Japanese and some other languages, and further explores the differences and similarities of the grammatical nominalization and GNMCC approaches to consider the implications that can be derived from the structure and the uses of complex noun phrases.

Matsumoto, Yoshiko. 1997. Noun-Modifying Constructions in Japanese: A Frame Semantic Approach. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Matsumoto, Yoshiko, B. Comrie, and P. Sells. 2017. Noun-Modifying Clause Constructions in Languages of Eurasia: Rethinking theoretical and geographical boundaries. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Shibatani, M. 2017. Nominalization. Handbook of Japanese Syntax, (eds.) Shibatani, M., S. Miyagawa, H. Noda in series Handbook of Japanese Language and Linguistics, Shibatani, M. and T. Kageyama (series eds.). 271-332. Mouton de Gruyter.

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San Francisco, CA 94960

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