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Park Inn By Radisson Toronto Airport West

Address: 175 Derry Rd E, Mississauga

Toronto, Canada ON L5T 2Z7

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7th International conference on Environmental Microbiology & Soil Microbiology

About Conference

Conference Series LLC LTD takes immense pleasure & feels honoured in inviting the contributors across the globe to attend 7th International Conference on Environmental Microbiology & Soil Microbiology to be held during July 11-12, 2018 at Toronto, Canada on the theme "Recent Advances in Environmental Microbiology" which includes prompt keynote presentations, Oral talks, Poster presentations and Exhibitions.

Conference Series LLC LTD welcomes all the Microbiologist, Scientists, Research Scholars, Industrial professionals, Technologist and Student Delegates from Microbiology and Healthcare sectors to be a part of the esteemed Environmental Microbiology- 2018. As this will be the best amalgamation of Academia and Research involving every aspect of Environmental Microbiology. It is open to all types of Research methodologies both from Academia and Industry.

This year’s conference will showcase the roles of microbes in different atmosphere by relating them with revolutionary science in diverse area of microbiology through a wide range of scientific conference. The meeting is all set to be adorned by world renowned speakers. All those who are either starting your career or an old-time microbiologist can attend this conference to learn, hook-up and get galvanized. We are looking forward to welcome you all in Toronto.

Why to attend?

Environmental Microbiology Conference is the indigenous knowledge which is the result of datum and experience collection of local individuals and societies in successive generations is a valuable body that should be considered for getting to sustainable development. Its success and resilience results from the profound influence that microorganisms have on life on Earth, sustaining our environment, influencing our health and driving many industrial biotechnology processes. Research areas that are marine and freshwater biogeochemical cycles and the influence of microbes on climate change through consumption and production of greenhouse gases, bioremediation of contaminated land and water, production of biofuels and use as biocatalysts, the importance of microbes in human health, interactions of microbes with animals and plants. Areas of microbiological research covered have an immense impact on the environment and mankind and thus Environmental Microbiology remains a very vibrant and highly topical research field.

Why in Toronto, Canada?

Toronto is Canada's largest city, the fourth largest in North America, and home to a diverse population of about 2.8 million people. It's a global centre for business, finance, arts and culture and is consistently ranked one of the world's most livable cities. Toronto has a vibrant history of change and growth, ranging from its early occupation over 1,000 years ago to its current status as North America’s fourth largest city. Toronto is Canada's largest municipality and is made up of the former cities of Toronto, North York, Scarborough, York and Etobicoke, and the former borough of East York. The city is home to a large immigrant population, and is a national and international hub for finance, communications and cultural life. Diverse cultures, climates and landscape make Canada a destination to suit any interest. Canada is a country of immigrants and has a policy of encouraging diversity. Thus, urban hubs feature a range of ethnic neighbourhoods, restaurants, and shops. In addition to rich and varied urban centres, Canada’s natural environment is one of the most beautiful in the world. From pristine coastlines to rugged mountains and sparkling lakes, Canada’s geography inspires awe coast to coast.

The western side of Toronto is sometimes only thought of as place where industry and residences bump up against each other, but it is also a place where there are wonderful parks and waterways and where numerous pockets of small businesses and local spirit create active and diverse communities. Combining suburban enclaves and malls with condominium developments and the dense business district surrounding the North York Civic Centre, the north-central tip of Toronto is at once both relaxed and exciting. The area is also home to York University and Black Creek Pioneer Village.

Target Audience:

• Scientists
• Students
• Researchers
• Faculties
• Environmental Microbiology institutes
• Associations and Societies
• Research Labs
• Industrial delegates from Academia
• Advertisers and Sponsors

Session/Tracks
Conference Series LLC Ltd is an online open access publisher and a scientific event organizer, announcing its “7th International Conference on Environmental Microbiology & Soil Microbiology” during July 11-12, 2018 at Toronto, Canada (Venue: Park Inn By Radisson Toronto Airport West, 175 Derry Rd E, Mississauga, ON L5T 2Z7, Canada). The conference theme is “Recent Advances in Environmental Microbiology”. This interesting event is managed in such a way to provide an exclusive platform for educators, new researchers, and learners to present and discuss the most recent innovations, possibilities, and concerns adopted in the field of Environmental Microbiology. Environmental Microbiology 2018 will comprise an informative and exciting conference program including leading keynote speakers, poster presenters, session speakers who will be presenting their research on the topics related to Environmental Microbiology.

Therefore we invite you heartedly to join us at the Environmental Microbiology 2018, where you will be sure to have a great experience with experts from around the world. All the important members of Environmental Microbiology 2018 organizing committee look further to meet you in Toronto, Canada.

Session: Recycling and Optimization of waste

Recycling is the process to change waste materials into new products to prevent waste of potentially useful materials, the main use of recycling process is to reduce consumption of fresh raw materials and also reduce the energy usage and reduce air pollution and also reduce water pollution. There are some types of recycling are available they are e-cycle recycling, plastic recycling, physical recycling, chemical recycling, Recycling of food wastage and recycling of industrial waste

Importance and Scope: Vast research is going on recycling all over the world to minimise pollution in the environment to produce clean and green environment. Spain is the place where research doing around the world. Also, the Spain government is trying to encourage more people to recycle their waste and reduce Spain's waste mountain and some other countries whoever doing research on recycling are Switzerland, united states, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Italy, Senegal etc. Most commonly recyclable products are steel, glass, aluminium cans and foil and some other materials. Recycling helps extend the life usefulness of something that has already served its initial purpose by producing something that useful. Recycling benefits not only limited to human beings and also useful for the planet.

Session: Plant and Agricultural Microbiology

Plant and Agricultural Microbiology is the study of the organisms and environmental conditions that cause disease in plants, the mechanisms by which this occurs, the interactions between these causal agents and the plant (effects on plant growth, yield and quality), and the methods of managing or controlling plant disease. It also interfaces knowledge from other scientific fields such as mycology, microbiology, virology, biochemistry, bioinformatics, etc.

Plant disease is an impairment of the normal state of a plant that interrupts or modifies its vital functions. All species of plants, wild and cultivated alike are subject to disease. Although each species is susceptible to characteristic diseases, these are, in each case, relatively few in numbers. The occurrence and prevalence of plant diseases vary from season to season, depending on the presence of the pathogen, environmental conditions, and the crops and varieties grown. Some plant varieties are particularly subject to outbreaks of diseases; others are more resistant to them.

Importance and Scope: Control of plant diseases is crucial to the reliable production of food, and it provides significant reductions in the agricultural use of land, water, fuel and other inputs. Plants in both natural and cultivated populations carry inherent disease resistance, but there are numerous examples of devastating plant disease impacts, as well as recurrent severe plant diseases. However, disease control is reasonably successful for most crops. Disease control is achieved by use of plants that have been bred for good resistance to many diseases, and by a plant, cultivation approaches such as crop rotation, use of pathogen-free seed, appropriate planting date and plant density, control of field moisture, and pesticide use. Across large regions and many crop species, it is estimated that diseases typically reduce plant yields by 10% every year in more developed settings, but yield loss to diseases often exceeds 20% in less developed settings. Continuing advances in the science of plant pathology are needed to improve disease control, and to keep up with changes in disease pressure caused by the on-going evolution and movement of plant pathogens and by changes in agricultural practices.

Session: Global Warming and Pollution control

Global warming is the phenomenon of increasing average air temperatures near the surface of Earth over the past one to two centuries. Climate scientists have since the mid-20th century gathered detailed observations of varied weather and of related influences on. These data indicate that Earth’s climate has changed over almost every conceivable timescale since the beginning of geologic time and that the influence of human activities since at least the beginning of the Industrial Revolution has been deeply woven into the very fabric of climate change.

Global warming involves an unprecedented speeding up of the rate of change in natural processes, which now converges with the rate of change in human societies, leading to a crisis of adaptation. Most authoritative scientific bodies predict that on present trends a point of no return could come within ten years and that the world needs to cut emissions by 50% by mid-twenty-first century. It was natural scientists who first discovered and rose global warming as a political problem. This makes many of the global warming concerns unique. “Science becomes the author of issues that dominate the political agenda and become the sources of political conflict”. Perhaps for this reason, many social scientists, particularly sociologists, wary of trusting the truth claims of natural science but knowing themselves lacking the expertise to judge their validity, have avoided saying much about global warming and its possible consequences. Even sociologists such as Ulrich Beck and Anthony Giddens, who see “risk” as a key attribute of advanced modernity, have said little about climate change. For practical purposes, it can no longer be assumed that nature is a stable, well understood, background constant and thus social scientists do not need direct knowledge about its changes. Any discussion of likely social, economic, and political futures will have to heed what natural scientists say about the likely impacts of climate change.

While originally eccentric, global warming was placed firmly on the agenda in 1985, at a conference in Austria of eighty-nine climate researchers participating as individuals from twenty-three countries. The researchers forecast substantial warming, unambiguously attributable to human activities. Since that conference the researchers’ position has guided targeted empirical research, leading to supporting evidence, resolving anomalies and winning near unanimous peer endorsement. Skeptics have been confounded and reduced to a handful, some discredited by revelations of dubious funding from fossil fuel industries.

In April 2005 a NASA Goddard Institute oceanic study reported that the earth was holding on to more solar energy than it was emitting into space. The second IPCC report in 1996 had predicted a maximum temperature rise of 3.5 degrees Fahrenheit by the end of the twenty-first century. The third report, in 2001, predicted a maximum rise of 5.8 degrees Fahrenheit by the end of the twenty-first century. In October 2006 Austrian glaciologists reported in Geophysical Research Letters that almost all the world’s glaciers had been shrinking since the 1940s, and the shrinking rate had increased since 2001. None of the glaciers was growing. Melting glaciers could pose threats to the water supply of major South American cities and is already manifest in the appearance of many new lakes in Bhutan.

Currently, a NASA scientist described a recent “global warming hiatus” that shows Earth’s surface temperatures warming at a slower rate than previous decades – but it is still warming. Norman Loeb delivered a lecture entitled, “The Recent Pause in Global Warming: A Temporary Blip or Something More Permanent?” at the NASA Langley Research Center auditorium on Tuesday. The talk addressed challenges to scientists and increased skepticism among climate change skeptics due to the recent “hiatus” of global warming. The federal space agency climate scientist explored research into a slow-down in surface warming over the last 15 years referred to as the “Global Warming Hiatus.” In recent years, the global mean surface temperature on Earth has increased at a rate that is about one-third of that from the past 60 years. The global warming hiatus occurred despite record-breaking temperatures in the 2000s, retreating Arctic sea ice, rising sea levels and a record high global concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, according to a statement released by NASA.

Session: Applied Microbiology

Applied Microbiology is a set of practices that use living cells or component cells such as enzymes to generate industrial products & processes. It is a key enabling technology to realize a bio-economy that uses biological resources as an input to industrial processes, and bio-based processes to help industries become more environmentally sustainable.

Microbial productions have occupied a significant role in various areas of fermentation industry, food and beverage industry, biotechnology research, detergent industry. Microbial productions have a pivotal responsibility in industrial biotechnology which involves the use of microorganisms and enzymes to produce biobased products in sectors like chemicals, food & feed, paper, textiles and bioenergy. Microbial products include antibiotics, enzymes, vitamins, amino acids. Antibiotics are substances derived by some bacteria or fungi that can either inhibit the growth or kill other microorganisms. Antibiotics are produced industrially by fermentation where the source microorganism is grown in containers of size 100,000–150,000 litters or more in the presence of liquid growth medium.

Scope and Importance: Microalgae as a biofactory offer a promising approach towards the production of omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). These fatty acids provide significant health benefits and their consumption has increased as dietary supplements. Microalgal biotechnology explores the potential applications of autotrophic microalgae as aquaculture feed and in the development of biofuel crops. Microalgae can also be used as the production platforms for the development of omega- 3 fatty acids. Studies have reported that techniques like metabolic engineering and selective breeding can be applied successfully to produce large amounts of omega-3 fatty acids in microalgae.

Microbial cells, either bacteria or yeast are used as hosts to produce recombinant pharmaceuticals. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) have represented that the microbial cells represent convenient and powerful tools for recombinant protein production. Biofactory refers to any system that can produce useful amounts of biologically-active compounds such as recombinant proteins, therapeutics. Hosts such as bacteria, yeasts, mammalian and insect cells, transgenic plants and animals can be exploited for the large-scale production of diagnostic and therapeutic proteins. Molecular farming which is a keystone tool of plant biotechnology focuses on the exploitation of plants of agronomic relevance as biofactories for large-scale production of biomolecules. The whole plant or plant cell culture have been used for the production of biopharmaceuticals like cytokines, blood proteins, milk proteins, hormones, antibodies, metabolic enzymes, antigens and vaccines and many more biological molecules used in animal and human health care.

Session: Antimicrobials

Antibiotic resistance is a natural phenomenon. When an antibiotic is used, bacteria that can resist that antibiotic have a greater chance of survival than those that are "susceptible."

Modern Antibiotics Development of new antimicrobial drugs is an essential component in the effort to remain ahead of emerging microbial resistance. However, when new antibiotics are used with unrestrained enthusiasm, a predictable consequence is the further expansion of resistance. This problem is well known to the infectious diseases specialist and is increasingly appreciated by the nonspecialist and the public. A far more sensible strategy is to identify new ways to use these drugs to increase the duration of their usefulness. New methods to optimize antibiotic selection, dose, and duration of therapy are being investigated.

Importance and Scope: Numerous pathogens that have become resistant to commonly used antibiotics have been described in various contexts, including drug-resistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Streptococcus pneumonia, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Antibiotics-2015 is the premier event that brings together a unique and International mix of experts, researchers and decision-makers from both academia and industry across the globe to exchange their knowledge, experience and research innovations. There is a renewed interest in the antibiotic sector, which is evident from the most recent patents and investments. Bacterial vaccines and new antibiotic classes are gaining a tremendous amount of attention with several product candidates in clinical development. This conference focuses exclusively on antibiotics, bacterial vaccines, and other emerging antibacterials.

Session: Public Health Microbiology

Public Health Microbiology is a branch of healthcare concerned with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases. In addition, this field of science studies various clinical applications of microbes for the improvement of health. There are four kinds of microorganisms that cause infectious disease: bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses.

A healthcare microbiologist studies the characteristics of pathogens, their modes of transmission, mechanisms of infection and growth. Using this information a treatment can be devised. Infections may be caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. The pathogen that causes the disease may be exogenous (acquired from an external source; environmental, animal or other people, e.g. Influenza) or endogenous (from normal flora e.g. candidiasis). The site at which a microbe enters the body is referred to as the portal of entry. These include the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, genitourinary tract, skin, and mucous membranes. The portal of entry for a specific microbe is normally dependent on how it travels from its natural habitat to the host.

The mechanisms of infection, proliferation, and persistence of a virus in cells of the host are crucial for its survival. Once an infection has been diagnosed and identified, suitable treatment options must be assessed by the physician and consulting medical microbiologists. Some infections can be dealt with by the body’s own immune system, but more serious infections are treated with antimicrobial drugs. Bacterial infections are treated with antibacterial (often called antibiotics).

Session: Human Microbiota

Microbes (bacteria) within the body not only cause of getting sick or developing certain diseases but also present of beneficial microbes (bacteria). Microbes living in and on us are not invaders but those are beneficial colonizers. In fact, microbes are an integral internal ecosystem that essential for human/organism development benefits gut health and the immune system.

More precisely, dysfunction in the Microbiome will lead to autoimmune diseases such as diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, muscular dystrophy, multiple sclerosis, and fibromyalgia. Disease-causing microbes accumulate over time, changing gene activity & metabolic processes that resulting in an abnormal immune response against substances and tissues normally present in the body. These autoimmune diseases might pass in families not by DNA inheritance but by inheriting the Microbiome.

Session: Water Microbiology

Aquatic microbiology is the science that deals with microscopic living organisms in fresh or salt water systems. While aquatic microbiology can encompass all microorganisms, including microscopic plants and animals, it more commonly refers to the study of bacteria, viruses, and fungi and their relation to other organisms in the aquatic environment.

Importance and Scope: Bacteria are quite diverse in nature. The scientific classification of bacteria divides them into 19 major groups based on their shape, cell structure, staining properties (used in the laboratory for identification), and metabolic functions. Bacteria occur in many sizes as well ranging from 0.1 micrometre to greater than 500 micrometres. Some are motile and have flagella, which are tail-like structures used for movement. Although soil is the most common habitat of fungi, they are also found in aquatic environments. Aquatic fungi are collectively called water moulds or aquatic Phycomycetes. They are found on the surface of decaying plant and animal matter in ponds and streams. Some fungi are parasitic and prey on algae and protozoa. Bacteria, viruses, and fungi are widely distributed throughout aquatic environments. They can be found in freshwater rivers, lakes, and streams, in the surface waters and sediments of the world's oceans, and even in hot springs. They have even been found supporting diverse communities at hydrothermal vents in the depths of the oceans. Microorganisms living in these diverse environments must deal with a wide range of physical conditions, and each has specific adaptations to live in the particular place it calls home. For example, some have adapted to live in fresh waters with very low salinity, while others live in the saltiest parts of the ocean. Some must deal with the harsh cold of arctic waters, while those in hot springs are subjected to intense heat. In addition, aquatic microorganisms can be found living in environments where there are extremes in other physical parameters such as pressure, sunlight, organic substances, dissolved gases, and water clarity. Aquatic microorganisms obtain nutrition in a variety of ways. For example, some bacteria living near the surface of either fresh or marine waters, where there is often abundant sunlight, are able to produce their own food through the process of photosynthesis. Bacteria living at hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor where there is no sunlight can produce their own food through a process known as chemosynthesis, which depends on preformed organic carbon as an energy source. Many other microorganisms are not able to produce their own food. Rather, they obtain necessary nutrition from the breakdown of organic matter such as dead organisms.

Session: Food Microbiology

Food microbiology is the study of the microorganisms that inhabit, create, or contaminate food, including the study of microorganisms causing food spoilage. "Good" bacteria, however, such as probiotics, are becoming increasingly important in food science. In addition, microorganisms are essential for the production of foods such as cheese, yoghurt, bread, beer, wine and, other fermented foods.

Importance and Scope: Food safety is a major focus of food microbiology. Pathogenic bacteria, viruses and toxins produced by microorganisms are all possible contaminants of food. However, microorganisms and their products can also be used to combat these pathogenic microbes. Probiotic bacteria, including those that produce bacteriocins, can kill and inhibit pathogens. Alternatively, purified bacteriocins such as nisin can be added directly to food products. Finally, bacteriophages, viruses that only infect bacteria, can be used to kill bacterial pathogens. Thorough preparation of food, including proper cooking, eliminates most bacteria and viruses. However, toxins produced by contaminants may not be liable to change to non-toxic forms by heating or cooling the contaminated food. Fermentation is one of the methods to preserve food and alter its quality. Yeast, especially Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is used to leaven bread, brew beer and make wine. Certain bacteria, including lactic acid bacteria, are used to make yoghurt, cheese, hot sauce, pickles, fermented sausages and dishes such as kimchi. A common effect of these fermentations is that the food product is less hospitable to other microorganisms, including pathogens and spoilage-causing microorganisms, thus extending the food's shelf-life. Some cheese varieties also require moulds to ripen and develop their characteristic flavours. To ensure the safety of food products, microbiological tests such as testing for pathogens and spoilage organisms are required. This way the risk of contamination under normal use conditions can be examined and food poisoning outbreaks can be prevented. Testing of food products and ingredients is important along the whole supply chain as possible flaws of products can occur at every stage of production. Apart from detecting spoilage, microbiological tests can also determine germ content, identify yeasts and moulds, and salmonella. For salmonella, scientists are also developing rapid and portable technologies capable of identifying unique variants of Salmonella. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a quick and inexpensive method to generate numbers of copies of a DNA fragment at a specific band ("PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction)," 2008). For that reason, scientists are using PCR to detect different kinds of viruses or bacteria, such as HIV and anthrax based on their unique DNA patterns. Various kits are commercially available to help in food pathogen nucleic acids extraction, PCR detection, and differentiation. The detection of bacterial strands in food products is very important to everyone in the world, for it helps prevent the occurrence of foodborne illness. Therefore, PCR is recognized as a DNA detector in order to amplify and trace the presence of pathogenic strands in different processed food.

Session: Tools in Environmental Microbiology

Metagenomics (also referred to as environmental and community genomics) is the genomic analysis of microorganisms by direct extraction and cloning of DNA from an assemblage of microorganisms. The development of Metagenomics stemmed from the ineluctable evidence that as-yet-uncultured microorganisms represent the vast majority of organisms in most environments on earth. This evidence was derived from analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences amplified directly from the environment, an approach that avoided the bias imposed by culturing and led to the discovery of vast new lineages of microbial life. Metagenomics is the study of the collective genomes of the members of a microbial community. It involves cloning and analysing the genomes without culturing the organisms in the community, thereby offering the opportunity to describe the planet’s diverse microbial inhabitants, many of which cannot yet be cultured.

Metagenomics analysis involves isolating DNA from an environmental sample, cloning the DNA into a suitable vector, transforming the clones into a host bacterium, and screening the resulting transformants. The clones can be screened for phylogenetic markers or “anchors,” such as 16S rRNA and recA, or for other conserved genes by hybridization or multiplex PCR (136) or for expression of specific traits, such as enzyme activity or antibiotic production, or they can be sequenced randomly. Each approach has strengths and limitations; together these approaches have enriched our understanding of the uncultured world, providing insight into groups of prokaryotes that are otherwise entirely unknown.

Session: Environmental Science and Biogeochemical cycles

A biogeochemical cycle or substance turnover is a pathway by that a chemical substance moves through both the biotic (biosphere) and abiotic (lithosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere) components of Earth. A cycle is a series of transmuting which comes back to the commencement point and which can be reiterated. The term "biogeochemical" tells us about the biological, geological and chemical factors. The circulation of chemical nutrients like carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, and dihydrogen monoxide etc. through the biological and physical world are kenned as "biogeochemical cycles".

Session: Microbial Interactions and Bio-films

Organisms rarely live in isolation. Many rely on other creatures as sources of food or nutrients. Photosynthetic plants and microbes provide oxygen that humans need to live. Trees offer shelter to other plants and animals. Some relationships between different organisms, though, are more involved. One organism may depend on another for its survival. Sometimes they need each other. This is called symbiosis.

Often, especially with microbes, one organism lives inside another — the host. When both organisms benefit from the relationship, it is called mutualism. When only one organism benefits, but the other one is not harmed, it is called commensalism. Microbial symbiosis occurs between two microbes. Microbes, however, form associations with other types of organisms, including plants and animals. Bacteria have a long history of symbiotic relationships and have evolved in conjunction with their hosts. Other microbes, such as fungi and protists, also form symbiotic relationships with other organisms. Bacteria form symbiotic relationships with many organisms, including humans. One example is the bacteria that live inside the human digestive system. These microbes break down food and produce vitamins that humans need. In return, the bacteria benefit from the stable environment inside the intestines. Bacteria also colonize human skin. The bacteria obtain nutrients from the surface of the skin while providing people with protection against more dangerous microbes. Fungi and plants form mutually-beneficial relationships called mycorrhizal associations. The fungi increase the absorption of water and nutrients by the plants and benefit from the compounds produced by the plants during photosynthesis. The fungus also protects the roots from diseases. Some fungi form extensive networks beneath the ground and have been known to transport nutrients between plants and trees in different locations. Lichens are an example of a symbiotic relationship between two microbes, fungi and algae. So far, around 25,000 lichens have been identified. They grow on rocks and tree trunks, with colours ranging from pale whitish green to bright red and orange. The lichens grow in several forms: thin and crusty coverings; small branching strands; or flat, leaf-like structures. They are usually the first plants to grow in the cold and dry habitats that they favour. Certain protists and algae form a symbiotic relationship known as living sands. This type of association occurs in tropical and semitropical seas and appears as green, orange, brown or red deposits containing calcium carbonate. Living sands were used in the construction of the Egyptian pyramids. Many different types of algae combine with their protist hosts. Without the algae, the protists cannot survive very long. Similar to living sands, some protists extract chloroplasts from diatoms, a type of algae. The chloroplasts provide the protists with the ability to convert sunlight to chemical energy through photosynthesis. Eventually, the chloroplasts break down and stop functioning.

Scope and Importance: Microbial Interactions and Bio-films in the environment facilitate to characterise the interactions of organisms with their environment. This approach has many advantages for studying organism-environment interactions and for assessing organism function and health at the molecular level. There are many techniques to analyze the interactions of organisms with their environment. Microbial Interactions and Bio-films are being used to study the effects of environmental stress – such as pollution and climate change – on the health microbes, plants and animals that live in our natural environment.

Biofilms are facilitating in characterizing organism response to environmental stressors, whether they are abiotic stressors, such as temperature stress due to climate change (natural) and pollution (anthropogenic), or biotic interactions, such as infection and predation or a combination of more than one stressor. As a result, characterizing organism responses to environmental stressors can be complicated because multiple stressors can induce a variety of simultaneous changes in the microbial interactions.

Session: Biofuel and Bioenergy

Bioenergy is derived from biofuels such as Ethanol, Methanol, Biobutanol and etc., are produced through alternative/contemporary biological processes, derived from such as anaerobic digestion and agriculture, rather than a fuel produced by geological processes such as those involved in the formation of fossil fuels, such as coal and petroleum, from prehistoric biological matter. Biomass can be converted to appropriate or useful energy-containing substances in three different ways: thermal conversion, chemical conversion & biochemical conversion.

Fossil fuels like coal and oil have played a critical role in humanity’s recent history, providing a vast energy source which has fueled much of society’s development and industrialization. These fuels are still the primary source of energy for the world’s developed nations, and yet it is agreed that these traditional sources of energy cannot continue to power humanity’s growth into the future. The demand for oil production is at an all-time high, and will only increase as developing nations continue to grow.

Scope and Importance: Furthermore, many experts predict that the rate of world oil production has already peaked and that it will only decrease from now onwards as fewer and fewer oil reserves are discovered. Microbial biofuel production is already in use, principally in the form of sugar fermentation by yeast to produce ethanol. Although many microbes have been used in ethanol production, the yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae is primarily used in industry, using starch and sugars from plants as the starting material for the process.The most common feedstocks (carbon source utilized by the microbes) are agricultural products which can easily be processed to create the simple sugars needed for fermentation. This is primarily corn in the United States, wheat in the European Union, and sugar cane in Brazil. Ethanol fermentation by S. cerevisiae is primarily done via the standard glycolysis pathway. In the case of corn and other starch-containing plants, the simple sugars necessary are formed via the hydrolysis of starch to yield monosaccharide subunits, whereas the sugars in sugarcane are hydrolyzed only once and then go straight into the pathway. In the process, a single molecule of glucose is oxidized to two molecules of pyruvate. Anaerobic conditions are required so that molecular oxygen is not available for use as an electron acceptor, and instead, pyruvate must be used as the terminal electron acceptor. This fermentative process involves the decarboxylation of pyruvate to form carbon dioxide and acetaldehyde, and the subsequent reduction of acetaldehyde to produce ethanol. Ethanol fermentation by yeast also helps to address the problem of greenhouse gas emissions, although it does not represent a perfect solution from an environmental perspective either. All biofuels with a positive NEB should theoretically emit less carbon dioxide because the process of carbon fixation occurring within the growing plants should counterbalance the carbon dioxide emissions of both the invested fossil fuel energy and the combustion of ethanol. However, in reality, the nitrogen-rich fertilizer used to sustain the plants and the addition of extra plant matter into the soil supports communities of bacteria that produce nitrous oxide, a much more potent greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide. Considering this entire system, producing ethanol via corn fermentation emits approximately 88% of the greenhouse gas content of gasoline yielding the same amount of energy. This mediocre improvement, coupled with the other environmental implications such as pesticides, make most current ethanol fermentation techniques of limited use, although they are nevertheless a positive alternative to fossil fuels.

Session: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology

Environmental toxicology, also known as entox, is a multidisciplinary field of science concerned with the study of the harmful effects of various chemical, biological and physical agents on living organisms. Ecotoxicology is a subdiscipline of environmental toxicology concerned with studying the harmful effects of toxicants at the population and ecosystem levels.

Significance of Environmental Toxicology: Effects on non-target terrestrial species Manufacturers are required to provide environmental toxicology data on the effects of their pesticides on birds, invertebrates and plants. Among birds, the bobwhite quail and mallard duck are typical test species. Acute and chronic oral and dietary toxicity tests and reproduction tests are conducted with each of the two species. The reproduction test is designed to check for the mortality of adults and chicks (both hatched and unhatched), as well as such sublethal effects as reduced egg production and thin eggshells. Effects on wild mammals are predicted from the mammalian toxicology risk assessment. This assessment entails a review of acute oral, dermal and inhalation toxicity, short-term toxicity, long-term toxicity, genotoxicity, reproductive toxicity and teratogenicity studies.

Laboratory studies are also conducted to determine toxicity:

· Earthworms, which are important for soil fertility.

· Invertebrates, such as bees and other insect pollinators.

· Predatory or parasitic insects and predatory mites.

· Non-target terrestrial vascular plants.

Effects on non-target aquatic species Acute- and chronic-toxicity tests are conducted with both cold- and warm-water fish species (rainbow trout and bluegill sunfish, respectively). Data on toxicity to marine fish are reviewed when relevant to the proposed use-pattern. Information on acute and chronic toxicity to aquatic arthropods, such as water fleas (Daphnia species) is reviewed because of the important role these and other invertebrate species play in the aquatic ecosystem. Effects on molluscs (shellfish) are evaluated for pesticide uses that involve deposition in marine environments. Results of toxicity tests on freshwater and marine algae and aquatic vascular plants are also evaluated.

Session: Probiotics and Single-Cell Proteins

Probiotics are organisms such as bacteria or yeast that are believed to improve health. They are available in supplements and foods. The idea of taking live bacteria or yeast may seem strange at first. After all, we take antibiotics to fight bacteria. But our bodies naturally teem with such organisms. The digestive system is home to more than 500 different types of bacteria. They help keep the intestines healthy and assist in digesting food. They are also believed to help the immune system.

Scope and Importance: Researchers believe that some digestive disorders happen when the balance of friendly bacteria in the intestines becomes disturbed. This can happen after an infection or after taking antibiotics. Intestinal problems can also arise when the lining of the intestines is damaged. Taking probiotics may help. “Probiotics can improve intestinal function and maintain the integrity of the lining of the intestines,” says Stefano Guandalini, MD, professor of paediatrics and gastroenterology at the University of Chicago Medical Center. These friendly organisms may also help fight bacteria that cause diarrhoea. There’s also evidence that probiotics help maintain a strong immune system. “In societies with very good hygiene, we’ve seen a sharp increase in autoimmune and allergic diseases,” Guandalini tells WebMD. “That may be because the immune system isn’t being properly challenged by pathogenic organisms. Introducing friendly bacteria in the form of probiotics is believed to challenge the immune system in healthy ways.” Although they are still being studied, probiotics may help several specific illnesses, studies show. In 2011, experts reviewed the research. They concluded that probiotics are most effective for: Treating childhood diarrhea, Treating ulcerative colitis, Treating necrotizing enterocolitis, a type of infection and inflammation of the intestines mostly seen in infants, Preventing antibiotic-associated diarrhea and infectious diarrhea, Preventing pouchitis, an inflammation of the intestines that can follow intestinal surgery, Treating and preventing eczema associated with cow’s milk allergy, Helping the immune system. For the most part, taking probiotics is safe and causes few side effects. “People in cultures around the world have been eating yoghurt, cheeses, and other foods containing live cultures for centuries,” Still, probiotics may be dangerous for people with weakened immune systems or serious illnesses. One study found that patients with severe pancreatitis who were given probiotics had a higher risk of death.

Session: Quorum Sensing

Quorum sensing is the regulation of gene expression in response to fluctuations in cell-population density. Quorum sensing bacteria produce and release chemical signal molecules called autoinducers that increase in concentration as a function of cell density. The term Single Cell Protein (SCP) refers to the dried microbial cells or total protein extracted from pure microbial cell culture (Algae, bacteria, filamentous fungi, yeasts), which can be used as a food supplement to humans (Food Grade) or animals (Feed grade). Probiotics may seem new to the food and supplement industry, but they have been with us from our first breath. Probiotics serve as a source of functional and medical food.

Scope and Importance: The discovery that bacteria are able to communicate with each other changed our general perception of many single, simple organisms inhabiting our world. Instead of language, bacteria use signalling molecules which are released into the environment. As well as releasing the signalling molecules, bacteria are also able to measure the number (concentration) of the molecules within a population. Nowadays we use the term 'Quorum Sensing' (QS) to describe the phenomenon whereby the accumulation of signalling molecules enable a single cell to sense the number of bacteria (cell density). In the natural environment, there are many different bacteria living together which use various classes of signalling molecules. As they employ different languages they cannot necessarily talk to all other bacteria. Today, several quorum sensing systems are intensively studied in various organisms such as marine bacteria and several pathogenic bacteria.

Session: Microbial Engineering | Metabolic Engineering

Microbes also produce a variety of toxins and other substances which are used as therapeutic agents. Clostridium botulinum produces botulinum toxin which is used for the treatment of human neuromuscular disorders caused due to involuntary muscle contractions. Microbes can be metabolically engineered to produce important vitamins. Human beings require vitamin A in their diet but the human body cannot synthesise it and its deficiency results into night blindness. Studies have reported that engineered probiotic bacteria can be used to produce beta-carotene, which is a precursor to Vitamin A.

The genome is not a static entity. It is subjected to different types of heritable changes. A sudden, heritable change in the sequence of an organism’s genome that gives rise to alternate forms of any gene is called as a mutation. Selection of mutants from the wild-type phenotype is done by replica plating technique. Replica plating is used for the detection of mutants, the cell is transformed on to successive plates containing either a selective medium or a non-selective medium. Microbial colonies form on the non-selective plate in the same pattern as on the master plate. Only mutant cells can grow on the selective plate; the mutant colonies that are formed derive from colonies on the master plates that are mutant.

Scope and Importance: Replica plating has become an important technique of microbial genetics. It is useful in the screening for mutants that fail to grow under the selective regime. The position of an absent colony on the replica plate is used to retrieve the mutant from the master. For example, replica plating can be used to screen auxotrophic mutants in this way. In general, replica plating is a way of retaining an original set of strains on a master plate while simultaneously subjecting replicas to various kinds of tests on different media or under different environmental conditions.

Session: Microbial Enzymes, Metabolites and Natural Products

Microbes are not only causing of ill also beneficial for mankind in many ways, can be whole organisms or naturally synthesized small entities, either primary or secondary metabolites such as terpenoids, polyketides, urea, amino acids, peptides, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acid bases, ribonucleic acid, deoxyribonucleic acid, taxol which are of utilized in medicinal purpose, cosmetics, dietary supplements and food having core biological activities and chemical compositions.

Session: Microbial Resource Management (MRM)

Microbial Resource Management (MRM) is the inheritable characteristics of microorganisms of potential benefit to people. The term constitutes novel cultivars and specimens; conventional cultivars and specimens; special genetic stocks; wild relatives of domesticated species; and genetic variants of wild resource species. A wild genetic resource is the wild relative of a microbe that is already known to be of economic importance. The cause for conserving such a resource includes the provision of direct and indirect economic aid. However, the conserved genetic material must be made available to the people who require it to improve the productivity, aspect, or pest resistance of utilized microbial conscience of genetic resources. The values we acquire from microorganism genetic resources are generally associated with the common levels of organization and divergence that prevail in nature, from ecosystems to species, populations, entity and genes. In considering the conservation of microorganisms’ genetic resources it is necessary to clearly stipulate objectives designed. This is of absolute importance, as it is feasible to conserve an ecosystem and static drop of definite species; and to maintain a species and lose genetically distinct populations, or genes which may be of value in adaptation and future improvement of the species with beneficial, microbial and insect germplasm should be seized and assure through the extension of genebanks or in situ preserves for long-term accessibility. The genetic content of acquired germplasm should be characterized to ensure comprehensive genetic variability while diminishing genetic redundancy. The microbial and insect potential of unaltered germplasm must be determined.

Session: Nanotechnology and Environmental Microbiology

The vision of nanotechnology introduced in 1959 by late Nobel Physicist Richard P Faynman. Nano comes from the Greek word for dwarf, usually, nanotechnology is defined as the research and development of materials, devices, and systems exhibiting physical, chemical, and biological properties that are different from those found on a larger scale (matter smaller than the scale of things like molecules and viruses).

The field of “Nanomedicine” is the science and technology of diagnosing, treating, and preventing disease and traumatic injury, of relieving pain, and of preserving and improving human health, using nanoscale structured materials, biotechnology, and genetic engineering, and eventually complex machine systems and nanorobots.

It was perceived as embracing five main subdisciplines that in many ways are overlapping by common technical issues. It is an emerging multidisciplinary field to look for the reparation, improvement, and maintenance of cells, tissues, and organs by applying cell therapy and tissue engineering methods.

With the help of nanotechnology, it is possible to interact with cell components, to manipulate the cell proliferation and differentiation, and the production and organization of extracellular matrices.Present day nanomedicine exploits carefully structured nanoparticles such as dendrimers, carbon fullerenes (buckyballs), and nanoshells to target specific tissues and organs. These nanoparticles may serve as diagnostic and therapeutic antiviral, antitumor, or anticancer agents. Years ahead, complex nanodevices and even nanorobots will be fabricated, first of biological materials but later use more durable materials such as diamond to achieve the most powerful results.

The human body is comprised of molecules, hence the availability of molecular nanotechnology will permit dramatic progress to address medical problems and will use molecular knowledge to maintain and improve human health at the molecular scale.

Nanotechnology will change dentistry, healthcare, and human life more profoundly than many developments of the past. As with all technologies, nanotechnology carries a significant potential for misuse and abuse on a scale and scope never seen before. However, they also have potential to bring about significant benefits, such as improved health, better use of natural resources, and reduced environmental pollution. These truly are the days of miracle and wonder.

Current work is focused on the recent developments, particularly of nanoparticles and nanotubes for periodontal management, the materials developed from such as the hollow nanospheres, core-shell structures, nanocomposites, nanoporous materials, and nanomembranes will play a growing role in materials development for the dental industry.Once nanomechanics are available, the ultimate dream of every healer, medicine man and physician throughout recorded history will, at last, become a reality. Programmable and controllable microscale robots comprised of nanoscale parts fabricated to nanometer precision will allow medical doctors to execute curative and reconstructive procedures in the human body at the cellular and molecular levels.

Nanomedical physicians of the 21st century will still make good use of the body's natural healing powers and homeostatic mechanisms, because of all else equal, those interventions are best that intervene least.

Session: Soil Microbiology

Soil science is a radiant culture media for the extension and advancement of grouped microorganisms. The soil is related idle static material, however, a medium beating with life. Soil at present is accepted to be a dynamic or living framework containing numerous particular groups of microorganisms and among them like parasites, actinomycetes, protozoa and infections square measure the principal fundamental. Micro-organisms make a truly little portion of the dirt mass and involve a volume of yet one-hundredth. Inside the higher layer of soil, the microbial population is high to a great degree that reduces the profundity of soil. Each creature or a gaggle of life forms square measure responsible for a chose correction or change inside the dirt. The respective session of this Microbiology Conference will focus on Maintenance of biological equilibrium, minimization of pollutants in agricultural soil by microbes, biofertilizers and biopesticides and related such areas which will bring forward the importance of soil microbiology.

Microbes also play a key role in the nitrogen cycle. Bacteria in the soil convert atmospheric nitrogen into nitrates in the soil. Nitrates are an essential plant nutrient – they need the nitrogen for proteins - and the plants themselves provide food for livestock and other animals. The nitrogen locked in plant and animal proteins is then degraded into nitrates by microbes and eventually converted back into nitrogen by denitrifying bacteria. Compost heaps are a fantastic example of how effectively microbes break down organic matter. The mixture of garden weed, grass clippings and mouldy fruit and veg is decomposed rapidly by fungi and bacteria into carbon dioxide and plant compost containing nourishing nitrates and nitrites. Without the recycling power of microbes dead vegetation, carcasses and food waste would start piling up around us! In the UK 6.7 million tonnes of food waste is thrown away every year. Imagine what would happen to the Earth if this waste just sat there and wasn’t degraded

Session: Aero Microbiology

Air pollution is the releasing of particulates, biological molecules, or other unsafe materials into the Earth’s climate, potentially creating an infection, demise to people, harm to other living life forms, for example, food crops, or the natural or built environment. The atmosphere is a complex natural gaseous system that is vital to assist life on planet Earth. Stratospheric ozone depletion because of air contamination has been recognized as a danger to human well-being and additionally to the World's environments. < br> Indoor air contamination and urban air quality are recorded as two of the world's most exceedingly terrible lethal contamination issues in the 2008 Smithy Establishment World's Most exceedingly bad Dirtied Spots report. As indicated by the 2014 WHO report, air contamination in 2012 created the deaths of around 7 million individuals worldwide.

An air pollutant is a substance in the air circulating everywhere that can have antagonistic consequences for people and the environment. The substance could be robust particles, fluid droplets, or gasses. A toxin might be of the common starting point or man-made. Poisons are delegated essential or auxiliary. Essential toxins are normally delivered from a procedure, for example, fiery remains from a volcanic emission. Different illustrations incorporate carbon monoxide gas from engine vehicle fumes, or the sulfur dioxide discharged from manufacturing plants. Optional contaminations are not emitted specifically. Rather, they structure circulating everywhere when essential poisons respond or interface. Ground level ozone is a conspicuous illustration of an optional poison. A few toxins may be both essential and optional: they are both emitted specifically and framed by other essential contaminations.

Session: Diversity of Microbes and viruses

Microorganisms are called microbes for short. This class of life forms includes cellular life forms as well as the non-living crystals called viruses that parasitize living cells. The category called microbes includes viruses, bacteria, protists, some forms of fungus organisms and a few simple members of the animal kingdom. Microbes exist everywhere in abundance. Most are not harmful but some in the category are known as pathogens and are harmful. The term pathogen indicates disease causing.

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