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2nd International Conference on Sexually Transmitted Diseases (pgr) S

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Toronto, Canada

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2nd International Conference on Sexually Transmitted Diseases

About Conference
PULSUS cordially invites all the researchers, academicians, students and business professionals in the field of STD, HIV/AIDS from all over the world to “2nd International Conference on Sexually Transmitted Diseases” slated on August 20-21, 2018 at Toronto, Canada which includes prompt keynote presentations, Workshops, Oral talks, Poster presentations and Exhibitions.

The STD 2018 conference will revolve around the theme “Futuristic Approaches in Clinical Therapies of Sexually Transmitted Diseases” thus relaying the latest technologies and innovations relevant to STD related fields. The two days meeting is going to be an event to look forward to for its enlightening symposiums & workshops from established experts of the field, exceptional keynote sessions directed by the best in the business. It will also prove to be a brilliant open door for the representatives from Universities and Institutes to cooperate with the world class researchers and an outstanding opportunity for businesses keen at expanding their global market reach.

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) are among the most infectious diseases which is caused by bacterial, viral and protozoan pathogens and are a major cause for morbidity and mortality in many developing countries. The prime focus of the event is on the clinical advances in diagnostic methods, understanding drug resistance and mutation mechanism, cancer associated with STDs. The different treatment strategies for STDs mainly focuses on drug development and research such as gene editing, nanotechnology in drug delivery system, phytochemicals in STDs treatment which provides a better clinical care.This event provides an excellent opportunity for the young scientists and researchers to explore the advancements in the various fields associated with STDs.



Scientific Sessions
Session 1: Types of STDs

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infectious diseases that are transmitted from a person to another through sexual contact or blood of an infected person. The pathogens such as bacteria, virus, fungi, protozoa are responsible for the disease transmission. Bacterial STDs are Syphilis, Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, Chancroid. Viral STDs include HIV/AIDS, Human papillomavirus, Hepatitis, Genital Herpes. Trichomoniasis is a STD caused by parasitic protozoan. Candidiasis is considered to be an fungal STD which is spread by fungus Candida albicans. Most of the sexually transmitted diseases such as viral STDs have no cure but the disease can be controlled with proper treatment while bacterial, fungal and protozoan STDs can be cured with antifungals and antibiotics.

Bacterial STDs
Viral STDs
Protozoan STDs
Fungal STDs
Related Conferences: International Conference On HIV/AIDS, STDs & STIs, June 18-20, 2018, Paris, France; 2nd World Conference on STDs, STIs & HIV/AIDS, May 18-19, 2018, Quebec, Canada; 2018 STD Prevention Conference, August 27–30, 2018, Washington, DC; International Conference on HIV/AIDS, STD's & STI's, April 23-25, 2018, Valencia, Spain; 25th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, March 4-7, 2018, Boston, United States

Related Societies: International Union against Sexually Transmitted Infections (IUSTI); Canadian Association for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases; American Medical Association; Center for AIDS Prevention Studies (CAPS); HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN)

Session 2: Evolution of STDs

The evolution of the disease pathogens are caused by the selective pressures of the host immune response, modern drugs, vaccines or by microbial competition. Through evolutionary phase, a pathogen can become more or less virulent. The phylogeny, epidemiology and origin studies on sexually transmitted diseases provides valuable data on the genetic transition traits in both host and pathogen. The evolutionary study of the disease causing pathogen provides the disease transmission and diversity among the human population. The clinical epidemiology and phylogenetic study paves way for new insights for the development of drugs and therapies against the multiple drug resistant strains.

Origin
Phylogenetics
Epidemiology
Diversity
Related Conferences: 2018 American Conference for the Treatment of HIV, April 5–7, 2018, Chicago, United States; 7th Asian Conference on Hepatitis and AIDS (ACHA), June 09– 10, 2018, Beijing, China; 14th International Workshop on Co-Infection, HIV & Hepatitis, May 16-18, 2018, Seville, Spain; 8th Asia Pacific STD and Infectious Diseases Congress (STD Asia Pacific 2018), August 22-23, 2018, Tokyo, Japan; Infectious Diseases and STD-AIDS 2018, April 26-27, 2018, Rome, Italy

Related Societies: International Society for Sexually Transmitted Diseases Research (ISSTDR); International Society for Infectious Diseases; American Sexually Transmitted Diseases Association (ASTDA); Canadian Public Health Association; Asian and Pacific Islander Wellness Center (A&PIWC)

Session 3: Immunopathogenesis

The immune system helps in elimination of the invading microbial pathogens in the body through a series of defense mechanism. The innate immune response of the body provides first line of defense against the pathogens which is fast and non-specific response while adaptive immune response is specific and slow. The study of immunopathogenesis allows us to explore the disease transmission process, pathogen-host interactions, immune defense against the STD pathogens. This allows us to understand the pathological condition and progression of the disease and also the genetic factors influencing the immune defense against STD transmission. The genetic factors influence can be used for the development of gene therapies that triggers immune reaction against the disease causing pathogens in the body.

Disease Transmission
Pathogen-Host Interaction
Innate Immune Response
Adaptive Immune Response
Genetic Factors
Related Conferences: 2nd International Conference on Sexually transmitted Diseases, Infections and AIDS, October 17-18, 2018, Las Vegas, USA; Global Experts Meet on STD-AIDS and Infectious Diseases, May 30-31, 2018, Auckland, New Zealand; 16th European Meeting on HIV & Hepatitis: Treatment Strategies & Antiviral Drug Resistance, May 30–June 01, 2018, Rome, Italy; STI & HIV 2019 World Congress, July 14-17, 2019, Vancouver, Canada; HIV Research for Prevention (HIVR4P) 2018, October 21–25, 2018, Madrid, Spain

Related Societies: Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology (CHAVI); Centers for AIDS Research (CFAR); Division of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (DAIDS); Division of AIDS Research (DAR); American Academy of HIV Medicine; American Society of Clinical Oncology

Session 4: Treatment Strategies

Antibiotics are used for treating the STDs caused by bacteria and protozoa. The bacterial STDs can be cured if the infection is properly diagnosed and treated. Several antibiotic resistant strains of pathogens have developed which pose a serious threat for health of the STD affected individuals. For viral STDs, there are no complete cure but progression of the disease can be controlled by antiretroviral therapies which use multiple antiretroviral drugs to decrease the disease proliferation and reduce other opportunistic infections. Gene therapy involves gene editing approaches which can provide a better and safer alternative to other existing drugs. Novel and emerging treatment strategies can provide a solution for the increasing drug resistance in the pathogens.

Antibiotic Therapy
Antiretroviral Combination Therapy
Immunotherapy
Gene Therapy
Related Conferences: 4th Central and Eastern European Meeting on Viral Hepatitis and Co-Infection with HIV, October 11-12, 2018, Prague, Czech Republic; International Conference on HIV/AIDS Prevention and treatment (ICHAPT-18), May 8, Ottawa, Canada; 7th Annual Canadian Conference on HIV/AIDS Research, April 26th-29th, 2018, Vancouver, Canada; Global HIV/AIDS Congress, August 20-21, 2018, Prague, Czech Republic; 6th International Conference on HIV/AIDS, STDs and STIs, October 29-30, 2018, San Francisco, USA

Related Societies: Association of Nurses in AIDS Care; International AIDS Vaccine Initiative; AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) Network; European Society for Immunodeficiencies; Indian Association for the Study of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (IASSTD); HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN)

Session 5: STDs Prevention

STDs are transmitted from a person to another through sexual contact or blood transfusions from an infected person or needle sharing, or from mother to infant during pregnancy, labor and breastfeeding. STDs can be prevented through vaccination, screening and through promoting safer sexual behavior, early health-care seeking behavior, prevention and care activities. Pregnant women affected with STD must take proper treatment to prevent the vertical transmission of STD. Most STDs cannot be cured and leads to infertility, birth defects in infants, co-infections, opportunistic infections and many other health issues.

Effective Healthcare Systems
Vaccination
Preconception Care
Prenatal Care
Related Conferences: 6th STDs, STIs & HIV/AIDS Conferences, October 29-30 , 2018, Madrid, Spain; 8th Infectious Diseases Conferences, June 07-08, 2018, London, UK; 9th Emerging Infectious Diseases Conferences, 31st August-1st September 2018, Zurich, Switzerland; International Conference On HIV/AIDS, STDs & STIs, June 18-20, 2018, Paris, France; 2nd World Conference on STDs, STIs & HIV/AIDS, May 18-19, 2018, Quebec, Canada

Related Societies: American Sexual Health Association; National Coalition of STD Directors; Infectious Diseases Society of America; European AIDS Clinical Society; European AIDS Treatment Group (EATG)

Session 6: Advanced Diagnostic Tools

Diagnosis of STDs are done by serological assays, amplification techniques, immunological diagnosis attains a accurate result of the diagnosis. Point-of-care test enables rapid screening of Syphilis and allows treatment without delay. Nucleic acid amplification testsmonitor the infection trends and helps in the adaptation of treatment protocols. Drug-resistance test provides the provisions for identifying drug resistance in the STDs which aids in overcoming the resistance and provide a better treatment. Further improvements in the diagnosis method can help in rapid and cost-effective method for screening of the disease.

Nucleic acid Tests
Serological Assays
Amplification Techniques
Immunological Diagnosis
Drug-Resistance Testing
Point- of-Care Test
Related Conferences: 2018 American Conference for the Treatment of HIV, April 5–7, 2018, Chicago, United States; 7th Asian Conference on Hepatitis and AIDS (ACHA), June 09– 10, 2018, Beijing, China; 14th International Workshop on Co-Infection, HIV & Hepatitis, May 16-18, 2018, Seville, Spain; 8th Asia Pacific STD and Infectious Diseases Congress (STD Asia Pacific 2018), August 22-23, 2018, Tokyo, Japan; Infectious Diseases and STD-AIDS 2018, April 26-27, 2018, Rome, Italy

Related Societies: International Society for Sexually Transmitted Diseases Research (ISSTDR); International Society for Infectious Diseases; American Sexually Transmitted Diseases Association (ASTDA); Canadian Public Health Association; Asian and Pacific Islander Wellness Center (A&PIWC)

Session 7: Drug Development and Research

Drug development and research is the development and invention of new drugs and improvement of existing drugs. Continuous progress in drug development and research field is necessary for invention of new drugs and drug targets. Identification of the drug target is the basis of the drug development process, this can be done through various computational approaches. Gene editing technology such as CRISPR seeks to eliminate the latent as well active HIV infection in the human which would be more effective in the treatment of AIDS. Various viral inhibitors such as entry inhibitors, maturation inhibitors are designed to inhibit the replication of the virus inside the host cell.

New Drugs and Drug Targets
Integrase Inhibitors
Entry Inhibitors
Maturation Inhibitors
Gene Editing
Related Conferences: 2nd International Conference on Sexually transmitted Diseases, Infections and AIDS, October 17-18, 2018, Las Vegas, USA; Global Experts Meet on STD-AIDS and Infectious Diseases, May 30-31, 2018, Auckland, New Zealand; 16th European Meeting on HIV & Hepatitis: Treatment Strategies & Antiviral Drug Resistance, May 30–June 01, 2018, Rome, Italy; STI & HIV 2019 World Congress, July 14-17, 2019, Vancouver, Canada; HIV Research for Prevention (HIVR4P) 2018, October 21–25, 2018, Madrid, Spain

Related Societies: Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology (CHAVI); Centers for AIDS Research (CFAR); Division of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (DAIDS); Division of AIDS Research (DAR); American Academy of HIV Medicine; American Society of Clinical Oncology

Session 8: Vaccines Development

A highly effective method for controlling infectious diseases is vaccination, it helps in prevention of high risk health issues. Prophylactic vaccines are those used for prevention while therapeutic vaccines are used for treatment of the specific disease. Sexually transmitted diseases are spread by pathogens such as bacteria, virus, fungi and protozoa. Many viral STDs doesn't have cure hence preventing the infection through vaccination is a best method. Vaccines are developed for Hepatitis and Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection and for HIV and Herpes virus vaccines are being developed. Vaccination is the primary solution for eradication of sexually transmitted diseases in human.

Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis
Post-Exposure Prophylaxis
Therapeutic Vaccines
Advancements in Vaccine Technology
HIV and Genital herpes Vaccine Development
Related Conferences: 4th Central and Eastern European Meeting on Viral Hepatitis and Co-Infection with HIV, October 11-12, 2018, Prague, Czech Republic; International Conference on HIV/AIDS Prevention and treatment (ICHAPT-18), May 8, Ottawa, Canada; 7th Annual Canadian Conference on HIV/AIDS Research, April 26th-29th, 2018, Vancouver, Canada; Global HIV/AIDS Congress, August 20-21, 2018, Prague, Czech Republic; 6th International Conference on HIV/AIDS, STDs and STIs, October 29-30, 2018, San Francisco, USA

Related Societies: Association of Nurses in AIDS Care; International AIDS Vaccine Initiative; AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) Network; European Society for Immunodeficiencies; Indian Association for the Study of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (IASSTD); HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN)

Session 9: Nanotechnology in HIV Treatment

Nanotechnology is the science and engineering of structures that are 1–100 nm in size. Nanomedicine is a branch of medicine which is employed in preventive, diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Using nanoparticles, effective timely release of drugs to the infected areas/organs are possible which improves specificity of drug action. HIV/AIDS patients face a major problem where the virus resides in latent reservoirs makes it hard to reach for drugs. Nanoparticles has the ability to travel through the body with less interruption which aids in effective release of drugs at HIV virus reservoirs at the specific target. Therapeutic nanoparticles have higher specificity for the drug targets which enhances the treatment efficiency and better cure for the affected individual.

Drug Delivery System
Drug Nanosuspension
Therapeutic Nanomaterials
Nanoparticle Based Vaccines
Related Conferences: 6th STDs, STIs & HIV/AIDS Conferences, October 29-30 , 2018, Madrid, Spain; 8th Infectious Diseases Conferences, June 07-08, 2018, London, UK; 9th Emerging Infectious Diseases Conferences, 31st August-1st September 2018, Zurich, Switzerland; International Conference On HIV/AIDS, STDs & STIs, June 18-20, 2018, Paris, France; 2nd World Conference on STDs, STIs & HIV/AIDS, May 18-19, 2018, Quebec, Canada

Related Societies: American Sexual Health Association; National Coalition of STD Directors; Infectious Diseases Society of America; European AIDS Clinical Society; European AIDS Treatment Group (EATG)

Session 10: Phytochemicals in STDs Treatment

Plants contain a wide range of substances that are used for treating chronic as well as acute infectious diseases. Many modern drugs in use have been developed from the medicinal plants which has been used by indigenous people. Phytochemicals are chemicals secreted by plants that have disease preventive properties that is used by the plants to protect itself from diseases. Antimicrobial activity of the plant sources can act as a better drug for the strains that has developed multiple drug resistance to antibiotics. Many bacterial STDs can be combated using phytochemicals produced by the medicinal plants. Pharmacological effects of the bio active compounds in the plants must be explored to produce a cure for the multiple drug resistant bacterial STDs.

Antimicrobial Effect of Phytochemicals
Phytoconstituents and its Effects on STDs
Novel Therapeutic Drugs
Multi-Drug Resistance and Phytochemical Drugs
Related Conferences: 2018 American Conference for the Treatment of HIV, April 5–7, 2018, Chicago, United States; 7th Asian Conference on Hepatitis and AIDS (ACHA), June 09– 10, 2018, Beijing, China; 14th International Workshop on Co-Infection, HIV & Hepatitis, May 16-18, 2018, Seville, Spain; 8th Asia Pacific STD and Infectious Diseases Congress (STD Asia Pacific 2018), August 22-23, 2018, Tokyo, Japan; Infectious Diseases and STD-AIDS 2018, April 26-27, 2018, Rome, Italy

Related Societies: International Society for Sexually Transmitted Diseases Research (ISSTDR); International Society for Infectious Diseases; American Sexually Transmitted Diseases Association (ASTDA); Canadian Public Health Association; Asian and Pacific Islander Wellness Center (A&PIWC)

Session 11: Drug Resistance and Mutation

The infectious pathogens mutate under certain circumstances to overcome the pressure inflicted upon them. Such organisms develop resistance to the drug in use. This proves to be a major problem in the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. Human immunodeficiency virus has developed resistance to the antiretroviral drug provided. Hence combination antiretroviral therapies are used for treating AIDS which involves using two or more antiretroviral drugs together. Several bacterial species has also developed resistance to the antibiotics provided for the treatment. The mutation of the pathogens has led to development of drug resistance against many antibiotics and antiretroviral drugs.

Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors Resistance
Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors Resistance
Protease Inhibitors Resistance
Antibiotic Resistance
Antiviral Drug Resistance
Related Conferences: 2nd International Conference on Sexually transmitted Diseases, Infections and AIDS, October 17-18, 2018, Las Vegas, USA; Global Experts Meet on STD-AIDS and Infectious Diseases, May 30-31, 2018, Auckland, New Zealand; 16th European Meeting on HIV & Hepatitis: Treatment Strategies & Antiviral Drug Resistance, May 30–June 01, 2018, Rome, Italy; STI & HIV 2019 World Congress, July 14-17, 2019, Vancouver, Canada; HIV Research for Prevention (HIVR4P) 2018, October 21–25, 2018, Madrid, Spain

Related Societies: Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology (CHAVI); Centers for AIDS Research (CFAR); Division of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (DAIDS); Division of AIDS Research (DAR); American Academy of HIV Medicine; HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN);

Session 12: STDs and Cancer

Sexually transmitted disease increases the risk of being affected by cancer. Among the STDs which lead to cancer, human papillomavirus infection is found to cause cervical cancer in women and penile cancer in men. It is also responsible for the development of oropharyngeal cancer in both sexes. Untreated STDs has a higher risk for leading to development of cancer. The progression of cancer in people affected by STD must be analyzed to understand the causative agents of the cancer.

Oropharyngeal Cancer
Cervical Cancer
Penile Cancer
Prostate Cancer
Related Conferences: 4th Central and Eastern European Meeting on Viral Hepatitis and Co-Infection with HIV, October 11-12, 2018, Prague, Czech Republic; International Conference on HIV/AIDS Prevention and treatment (ICHAPT-18), May 8, Ottawa, Canada; 7th Annual Canadian Conference on HIV/AIDS Research, April 26th-29th, 2018, Vancouver, Canada; Global HIV/AIDS Congress, August 20-21, 2018, Prague, Czech Republic; 6th International Conference on HIV/AIDS, STDs and STIs, October 29-30, 2018, San Francisco, USA

Related Societies: Association of Nurses in AIDS Care; International AIDS Vaccine Initiative; AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) Network; European Society for Immunodeficiencies; Indian Association for the Study of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (IASSTD); American Society of Clinical Oncology

Session 13: Co-Infection of STDs

Gonorrhea, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis cause immune reactions which leads to inflammation that can easily be infected with HIV. Co-infection is a condition where a person actively infected with STD is infected with another STD. when a STI infected individual is prone to another infection due to immune compromise they are less able to mount a protective response against sexually transmitted pathogens. Treating co-infected individuals can be challenging and the treatment methods must be analyzed and modified to their needs.

HIV and Gonorrhea
HIV and Hepatitis
HIV and Kidney disease
HIV and Tuberculosis
Related Conferences: International Conference On HIV/AIDS, STDs & STIs, June 18-20, 2018, Paris, France; 2nd World Conference on STDs, STIs & HIV/AIDS, May 18-19, 2018, Quebec, Canada; 2018 STD Prevention Conference, August 27–30, 2018, Washington, DC; International Conference on HIV/AIDS, STD's & STI's, April 23-25, 2018, Valencia, Spain; 25th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, March 4-7, 2018, Boston, United States

Related Societies: International Union against Sexually Transmitted Infections (IUSTI); Canadian Association for Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases; American Medical Association; Center for AIDS Prevention Studies (CAPS); HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN)

Session 14: Infertility and Birth Defects

When an STD infection is left untreated in women, it may be lead to pelvic inflammatory disease. Being affected by pelvic inflammatory disease may lead to infertility or ectopic pregnancy in pregnant women. When the mother is infected by STD, the fetus or new born is mostly infected. STDs during pregnancy can lead to miscarriage, birth defects including blindness, deafness, bone deformities, and intellectual disability, stillbirth, premature birth. In males, reduced fertility or infertility is most common side effect of the disease.

Ectopic Pregnancy
Premature Birth
Neonatal Sepsis
Neurological Defects
Related Conferences: 2018 American Conference for the Treatment of HIV, April 5–7, 2018, Chicago, United States; 7th Asian Conference on Hepatitis and AIDS (ACHA), June 09– 10, 2018, Beijing, China; 14th International Workshop on Co-Infection, HIV & Hepatitis, May 16-18, 2018, Seville, Spain; 8th Asia Pacific STD and Infectious Diseases Congress (STD Asia Pacific 2018), August 22-23, 2018, Tokyo, Japan; Infectious Diseases and STD-AIDS 2018, April 26-27, 2018, Rome, Italy

Related Societies: International Society for Sexually Transmitted Diseases Research (ISSTDR); International Society for Infectious Diseases; American Sexually Transmitted Diseases Association (ASTDA); Canadian Public Health Association; Asian and Pacific Islander Wellness Center (A&PIWC)

Session 15: Vertical STD Transmission

Vertical STD transmission is the process of transfer of STD from a mother to infant perinatally or postnatally. During delivery, when the baby passes through the infected canal, it can contract the STDs such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, genital herpes from the infected mother. Syphilis and HIV can be contracted from the mother during fetus development. Postnatal transmission of the disease is possible through breastfeeding the baby. Vertical STD transmission poses serious threat to the health of the baby.

Perinatal Transmission
Postnatal Transmission
Prevention of STD Transmission
Pregnancy Care and Treatment
Related Conferences: 2nd International Conference on Sexually transmitted Diseases, Infections and AIDS, October 17-18, 2018, Las Vegas, USA; Global Experts Meet on STD-AIDS and Infectious Diseases, May 30-31, 2018, Auckland, New Zealand; 16th European Meeting on HIV & Hepatitis: Treatment Strategies & Antiviral Drug Resistance, May 30–June 01, 2018, Rome, Italy; STI & HIV 2019 World Congress, July 14-17, 2019, Vancouver, Canada; HIV Research for Prevention (HIVR4P) 2018, October 21–25, 2018, Madrid, Spain

Related Societies: Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology (CHAVI); Centers for AIDS Research (CFAR); Division of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (DAIDS); Division of AIDS Research (DAR); American Academy of HIV Medicine; American Society of Clinical Oncology

Session 16: Paediatric STDs

Sexually transmitted diseases are an important cause of morbidity in paediatric patients. The transmission occurs via transplacental, intrapartum, and postpartum exposure. When an infant contracts disease from mother, it can affect the skin, eyes, mouth, central nervous system, and can also lead to organ failure. With treatment, the chances of transmitting HIV from mother to infant is low. Proper awareness, treatment and diagnosis is needed to prevent the transmission of STDs among young people.

Clinical Manifestation
Early Diagnosis
Risk Factors
Preventive Measures
Related Conferences: 6th STDs, STIs & HIV/AIDS Conferences, October 29-30 , 2018, Madrid, Spain; 8th Infectious Diseases Conferences, June 07-08, 2018, London, UK; 9th Emerging Infectious Diseases Conferences, 31st August-1st September 2018, Zurich, Switzerland; International Conference On HIV/AIDS, STDs & STIs, June 18-20, 2018, Paris, France; 2nd World Conference on STDs, STIs & HIV/AIDS, May 18-19, 2018, Quebec, Canada

Related Societies: American Sexual Health Association; National Coalition of STD Directors; Infectious Diseases Society of America; European AIDS Clinical Society; European AIDS Treatment Group (EATG)

Session 17: Multimorbidities and complications:

Multimorbidities is the presence of two or more chronic diseases at the same time. Super infection or re-infection is the condition where a person with HIV infection acquires infection with the sub-type of HIV. Re-infection affects the treatment which can deteriorate the health of the affected individual. The STD affected individual suffers from other social and emotional complicationswhich may also have adverse effects in the health of the individual. Multiple morbidities associated with the disease causes more damage to the health as the immune system would be compromised by the STD.

Opportunistic Infection
Superinfection/Reinfection
Behavioral Complications
Social Complications
Related Conferences: 4th Central and Eastern European Meeting on Viral Hepatitis and Co-Infection with HIV, October 11-12, 2018, Prague, Czech Republic; International Conference on HIV/AIDS Prevention and treatment (ICHAPT-18), May 8, Ottawa, Canada; 7th Annual Canadian Conference on HIV/AIDS Research, April 26th-29th, 2018, Vancouver, Canada; Global HIV/AIDS Congress, August 20-21, 2018, Prague, Czech Republic; 6th International Conference on HIV/AIDS, STDs and STIs, October 29-30, 2018, San Francisco, USA

Related Societies: Association of Nurses in AIDS Care; International AIDS Vaccine Initiative; AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) Network; European Society for Immunodeficiencies; Indian Association for the Study of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (IASSTD); HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN)

Session 18: Public Awareness and Knowledge of STDs

Educational and awareness programs must be conducted to improve the public knowledge about the sexually transmitted diseases. People affected by sexually transmitted diseases have dramatically increased, millions of people are affected by the disease due to lack of awareness. Public must be aware about the impact of STDs on the lives of the affected people and the importance of preventing, screening and treating STDs. Poor knowledge about the STDs lead to increased health issues such as ectopic pregnancies, infertility and other complications. It is a major health issue that affects mostly young people, not only in developing countries but in developed countries also.

Impact of STDs
STD Screening
Risk Awareness
Prevention Education
Community Awareness
Related Conferences: 2018 American Conference for the Treatment of HIV, April 5–7, 2018, Chicago, United States; 7th Asian Conference on Hepatitis and AIDS (ACHA), June 09– 10, 2018, Beijing, China; 14th International Workshop on Co-Infection, HIV & Hepatitis, May 16-18, 2018, Seville, Spain; 8th Asia Pacific STD and Infectious Diseases Congress (STD Asia Pacific 2018), August 22-23, 2018, Tokyo, Japan; Infectious Diseases and STD-AIDS 2018, April 26-27, 2018, Rome, Italy

Related Societies: International Society for Sexually Transmitted Diseases Research (ISSTDR); International Society for Infectious Diseases; American Sexually Transmitted Diseases Association (ASTDA); Canadian Public Health Association; Asian and Pacific Islander Wellness Center (A&PIWC)

Market Analysis
Summary:

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) are widespread infectious diseases which is transmitted from one person to another through sexual contact or blood. This disease is caused by microbial pathogens such as bacteria, virus, fungi and protozoans. The bacterial STDs such as Syphilis, Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, Chancroid are by bacteria and they can be cured with antibiotics. The viral STDs infections cannot be cured but can be kept under control by treatment such as antiretroviral combination therapy. Several viral STDs are HIV/AIDS, Human papillomavirus, Hepatitis, Genital Herpes. Candidiasis caused by Candida albicans is a type of fungal STD which can be treated with antifungals. STDs are transmitted from a person to another through sexual contact or blood transfusions from an infected person or needle sharing, or from mother to infant during pregnancy, labor and breastfeeding.

Most STDs cannot be cured and leads to infertility, birth defects in infants, co-infections, opportunistic infections and many other health issues. To prevent the disease transmission proper screening and diagnosis must be done. Different diagnostic methods are available which provides rapid diagnosis results. Point-of-care test, nucleic acid amplification tests, serological assays, amplification techniques, immunological diagnosis are several methods which are in use for screening for STDs. Pre-Exposure vaccination is available for hepatitis and human papillomavirus which helps in the prevention of the disease. Vaccination is the primary solution for the eradication of disease. People affected by sexually transmitted diseases have dramatically increased, millions of people are affected by the disease due to lack of awareness. Educational and awareness programs must be conducted to improve the public knowledge about the sexually transmitted diseases.

Scope and Importance:

Sexually transmitted diseases are a global level health issue with ongoing research and development for therapies and drug for prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. STDs cause serious health complications such as infertility in both men and women, ectopic pregnancy, pelvic inflammatory disease, stillbirth, neurologic damage, cancer and high morbidity in adults. There are about 20 million new STD infections each year. As per WHO report in 2015, about 1.1 billion people had sexually transmitted diseases other than HIV/AIDS. About 500 million people were infected with either chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis or trichomoniasis. At least 250 million women suffering from human papillomavirus while 530 million case find with genital herpes. Physicians and health-care providers play a key role in prevention and treatment of STDs. The worldwide STD diagnostic market was valued at over USD 100.0 billion in 2014. The advancements in STD diagnostic technologies offers more precise test results which contributes to the rise in the market value of STD diagnostics industry. Low voluntary screening rate for sexually transmitted diseases is a major restrain for this market. STDs diagnostic market was USD 103.20 billion in 2015 and is expected to reach around USD 166.50 by 2021, growing at a CAGR of about 8.3% between 2015 and 2021.

Among various therapies, the generally used modern treatment for STDs are antibiotics. The global STD drug market is expected to show constant growth due to the high prevalence of sexually transmitted disease in recent years. The high health risk associated with the disease increases the need for diagnosis, prevention and treatment for the sexually transmitted diseases. The patient’s willingness to opt for advanced treatment will boost the global drug market value of the sexually transmitted diseases. Improvement in the health-care worldwide and rising per capita income are the major components which drives the health-care reform supporting STD diagnostic industry growth. HPV infections constitute 5,00,000 cases/year of which 80% are reportedly from developing countries. The rise in incidence of various infections such as syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, human papillomavirus, herpes simplex virus, chancroid and trichomoniasis is expected to increase the demand for drugs globally. Companies playing major role in the global sexually transmitted diseases drug market are Pfizer INC, Hoffmann La Roche, Bayer Healthcare, Eli Lilly, Johnson & Johnson, Bristol-Myers Squibb Co. AbbVie, Inc., Gilead Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline Plc, and Merck & Co., Inc.


Why Toronto, Canada

Canada and the United States are the economically wealthiest and most developed nations in the continent. Canada is the third most populous country with 32,623,490. Canada shows remarkable growth in the sectors of services, mining and manufacturing. Canada's per capita GDP was estimated at $44,656 and it had the 11th largest GDP in 2014. Canada's services sector comprises 78% of the country's GDP in 2010, industry comprises 20% and agriculture comprises 2%. It is highly urbanized with 82 percent of the 35.15 million people living in large and medium-sized cities, many people living near the southern border. The capital city of Canada is Ottawa, and the three largest metropolitan cities in Canada are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver. With 2,731,571 residents in 2016, it is the largest city in Canada and fourth largest city in North America by population. Toronto is a prominent centre for music, theatre, motion picture production, and television production, and is home to the headquarters of Canada's major national broadcast networks and media outlets. The city is home to the Toronto Stock Exchange, the headquarters of Canada's five largest banks, and the headquarters of many large Canadian and multinational corporations. The global sexually transmitted diseases drug market is segmented into five regions geographically as North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America and Middle East and Africa. Among them, North America has leading market value and is estimated to gain more market shares from other regions by 2025. North America has emerged as the largest shareholder in the global sexually transmitted diseases drug market in 2016. The STD drug market growth of North America is attributed to its well established industries and advanced diagnosis and treatment facilities.

Top Universities associated with STDs Research Worldwide:

Northwestern University
Emory University
Harvard University
University of Rochester Medical Center
UCL Institute of Epidemiology and Health care
University of California
Baylor College of Medicine
University of Alabama
University of Pennsylvania
Beth Israel Medical Center
Newyork University
University of Liverpool
University of Colorado Denver
Imperial College London
Top Medical Institutes in Canada:

McGill University
Dalhousie University
McMaster University
University of Toronto
University of British Columbia
University of Montreal
University of Alberta
University of Calgary
University of Ottawa
Western University
Simon Fraser University
Queen's University

TRACK CATEGORIES
The track category is the heading under which your abstract will be reviewed and later published in the conference printed matters if accepted. During the submission process, you will be asked to select one track category for your abstract.

Track 1 : Types of STDs
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are infectious diseases that are transmitted from a person to another through sexual contact or blood of an infected person. The pathogens such as bacteria, virus, fungi, protozoa are responsible for the disease transmission. Bacterial STDs are Syphilis, Gonorrhoea, Chlamydia, Chancroid. Viral STDs include HIV/AIDS, Human papillomavirus, Hepatitis, Genital Herpes. Trichomoniasis is a STD caused by parasitic protozoan. Candidiasis is considered to be a fungal STD which is spread by fungus Candida albicans. Most of the sexually transmitted diseases such as viral STDs have no cure, but the disease can be controlled with proper treatment while bacterial, fungal and protozoan STDs can be cured with antifungals and antibiotics.

Track 1-1 Bacterial STDs
Track 1-2 Viral STDs
Track 1-3 Protozoan STDs
Track 1-4Fungal STDs

Track 2 : Evolution of STDs

The evolution of the disease pathogens is caused by the selective pressures of the host immune response, modern drugs, vaccines or by microbial competition. Through evolutionary phase, a pathogen can become virulent. The phylogeny, epidemiology and origin studies on sexually transmitted diseases provides valuable data on the genetic transition traits in both host and pathogen. The evolutionary study of the disease-causing pathogen provides the disease transmission and diversity among the human population. The clinical epidemiology and phylogenetic study paves way for new insights for the development of drugs and therapies against the multiple drug resistant strains.

Track 2-1 Origin
Track 2-2 Phylogenetics
Track 2-3 Epidemiology
Track 2-4 Diversity

Track 3 : Immunopathogenesis
The immune system helps in elimination of the invading microbial pathogens in the body through a series of defense mechanism. The innate immune response of the body provides first line of defense against the pathogens which is fast and non-specific response while adaptive immune response is specific and slow. The study of immunopathogenesis allows us to explore the disease transmission process, pathogen-host interactions, immune defense against the STD pathogens. This allows us to understand the pathological condition and progression of the disease and the genetic factors influencing the immune defense against STD transmission. The genetic factors influence can be used for the development of gene therapies that triggers immune reaction against the disease-causing pathogens in the body.

Track 3-1 Disease Transmission
Track 3-2 Pathogen-Host Interaction
Track 3-3 Innate Immune Response
Track 3-4 Adaptive Immune Response
Track 3-5 Genetic Factors

Track 4 : Treatment Strategies
Antibiotics are used for treating the STDs caused by bacteria and protozoa. The bacterial STDs can be cured if the infection is properly diagnosed and treated. Several antibiotic resistant strains of pathogens have developed which pose a serious threat for health of the STD affected individuals. For viral STDs, there are no complete cure, but progression of the disease can be controlled by antiretroviral therapies which use multiple antiretroviral drugs to decrease the disease proliferation and reduce other opportunistic infections. Gene therapy involves gene editing approaches which can provide a better and safer alternative to other existing drugs. Novel and emerging treatment strategies can provide a solution for the increasing drug resistance in the pathogens.

Track 4-1 Antibiotic Therapy
Track 4-2 Antiretroviral Combination Therapy
Track 4-3 Immunotherapy
Track 4-4 Gene Therapy

Track 5 : STDs Prevention
STDs are transmitted from a person to another through sexual contact or blood transfusions from an infected person or needle sharing, or from mother to infant during pregnancy, labor and breastfeeding. STDs can be prevented through vaccination, screening and through promoting safer sexual behaviour, early health-care seeking behavior, prevention and care activities. Pregnant women affected with STD must take proper treatment to prevent the vertical transmission of STD. Most STDs cannot be cured and leads to infertility, birth defects in infants, co-infections, opportunistic infections and many other health issues.

Track 5-1 Effective Healthcare Systems
Track 5-2 Vaccination
Track 5-3 Preconception care
Track 5-4 Prenatal Care

Track 6 : Advanced Diagnostic Tools
Diagnosis of STDs are done by serological assays, amplification techniques, immunological diagnosis attains a accurate result of the diagnosis. Point-of-care test enables rapid screening of Syphilis and allows treatment without delay. Nucleic acid amplification tests monitor the infection trends and helps in the adaptation of treatment protocols. Drug-resistance test provides the provisions for identifying drug resistance in the STDs which aids in overcoming the resistance and provide a better treatment. Further improvements in the diagnosis method can help in rapid and cost-effective method for screening of the disease.

Track 6-1 Nucleic acid Tests
Track 6-2 Serological Assays
Track 6-3 Amplification Techniques
Track 6-4 Immunological Diagnosis
Track 6-5 Drug-Resistance Testing
Track 6-6 Point-of-Care Test

Track 7 : Drug Development and Research
Drug development and research is the development and invention of new drugs and improvement of existing drugs. Continuous progress in drug development and research field is necessary for invention of new drugs and drug targets. Identification of the drug target is the basis of the drug development process, this can be done through various computational approaches. Gene editing technology such as CRISPR seeks to eliminate the latent as well active HIV infection in the human which would be more effective in the treatment of AIDS. Various viral inhibitors such as entry inhibitors, maturation inhibitors are designed to inhibit the replication of the virus inside the host cell.

Track 7-1 New Drugs and Drug Targets
Track 7-2 Integrase Inhibitors
Track 7-3 Entry Inhibitors
Track 7-4 Maturation Inhibitors
Track 7-5 Gene Editing

Track 8 : Vaccines Development
A highly effective method for controlling infectious diseases is vaccination, it helps in prevention of high risk health issues. Prophylactic vaccines are those used for prevention while therapeutic vaccines are used for treatment of the specific disease. Sexually transmitted diseases are spread by pathogens such as bacteria, virus, fungi and protozoa. Many viral STDs doesn't have cure hence preventing the infection through vaccination is a best method. Vaccines are developed for Hepatitis and Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection and for HIV and Herpes virus vaccines are being developed. Vaccination is the primary solution for eradication of sexually transmitted diseases in human.

Track 8-1 Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis
Track 8-2 Post-Exposure Prophylaxis
Track 8-3 Therapeutic Vaccines
Track 8-4 Advancements in Vaccine Technology
Track 8-5 HIV and Genital herpes Vaccine Development

Track 9 : Nanotechnology in HIV Treatment
Nanotechnology is the science and engineering of structures that are 1–100 nm in size. Nanomedicine is a branch of medicine which is employed in preventive, diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Using nanoparticles, effective timely release of drugs to the infected areas/organs are possible which improves specificity of drug action. HIV/AIDS patients face a major problem where the virus resides in latent reservoirs makes it hard to reach for drugs. Nanoparticles has the ability to travel through the body with less interruption which aids in effective release of drugs at HIV virus reservoirs at the specific target. Therapeutic nanoparticles have higher specificity for the drug targets which enhances the treatment efficiency and better cure for the affected individual.

Track 9-1 Drug Delivery System
Track 9-2 Drug Nanosuspension
Track 9-3 Therapeutic Nanomaterials
Track 9-4 Nanoparticle Based Vaccines

Track 10 : Phytochemicals in STDs Treatment
Plants contain a wide range of substances that are used for treating chronic as well as acute infectious diseases. Many modern drugs in use have been developed from the medicinal plants which has been used by indigenous people. Phytochemicals are chemicals secreted by plants that have disease preventive properties that is used by the plants to protect itself from diseases. Antimicrobial activity of the plant sources can act as a better drug for the strains that has developed multiple drug resistance to antibiotics. Many bacterial STDs can be combated using phytochemicals produced by the medicinal plants. Pharmacological effects of the bio active compounds in the plants must be explored to produce a cure for the multiple drug resistant bacterial STDs.

Track 10-1 Antimicrobial Effect of Phytochemicals
Track 10-2 Phytoconstituents and its Effects on STDs
Track 10-3 Novel Therapeutic Drugs
Track 10-4 Multi-Drug Resistance and Phytochemical Drugs

Track 11 : Drug Resistance and Mutation
The infectious pathogens mutate under certain circumstances to overcome the pressure inflicted upon them. Such organisms develop resistance to the drug in use. This proves to be a major problem in the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. Human immunodeficiency virus has developed resistance to the antiretroviral drug provided. Hence combination antiretroviral therapies are used for treating AIDS which involves using two or more antiretroviral drugs together. Several bacterial species have also developed resistance to the antibiotics provided for the treatment. The mutation of the pathogens has led to development of drug resistance against many antibiotics and antiretroviral drugs.

Track 11-1 Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors Resistance
Track 11-2 Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors Resistance
Track 11-3 Protease Inhibitors Resistance
Track 11-4 Antibiotic Resistance
Track 11-5 Antiviral Drug Resistance

Track 12 : STDs and Cancer
Sexually transmitted disease increases the risk of being affected by cancer. Among the STDs which lead to cancer, human papillomavirus infection is found to cause cervical cancer in women and penile cancer in men. It is also responsible for the development of oropharyngeal cancer in both sexes. Untreated STDs has a higher risk for leading to development of cancer. The progression of cancer in people affected by STD must be analyzed to understand the causative agents of the cancer.

Track 12-1 Oropharyngeal Cancer
Track 12-2 Cervical Cancer
Track 12-3 Penile Cancer
Track 12-4 Prostate Cancer

Track 13 : Co-Infection of STDs
Gonorrhoea, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis cause immune reactions which leads to inflammation that can easily be infected with HIV. Co-infection is a condition where a person actively infected with STD is infected with another STD. when a STI infected individual is prone to another infection due to immune compromise they are less able to mount a protective response against sexually transmitted pathogens. Treating co-infected individuals can be challenging and the treatment methods must be analyzed and modified to their needs.

Track 13-1 HIV and Gonorrhoea
Track 13-2 HIV and Hepatitis
Track 13-3 HIV and Kidney disease
Track 13-4 HIV and Tuberculosis

Track 14 : Infertility and Birth Defects
When an STD infection is left untreated in women, it may be lead to pelvic inflammatory disease. Being affected by pelvic inflammatory disease may lead to infertility or ectopic pregnancy in pregnant women. When the mother is infected by STD, the fetus or new born is mostly infected. STDs during pregnancy can lead to miscarriage, birth defects including blindness, deafness, bone deformities, and intellectual disability, stillbirth, premature birth. In males, reduced fertility or infertility is most common side effect of the disease.

Track 14-1 Ectopic Pregnancy
Track 14-2 Premature Birth
Track 14-3 Neonatal Sepsis
Track 14-4 Neurological Defects

Track 15 : Vertical STD Transmission
Vertical STD transmission is the process of transfer of STD from a mother to infant perinatally or postnatally. During delivery, when the baby passes through the infected canal, it can contract the STDs such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, genital herpes from the infected mother. Syphilis and HIV can be contracted from the mother during fetus development. Postnatal transmission of the disease is possible through breastfeeding the baby. Vertical STD transmission poses serious threat to the health of the baby.

Track 15-1 Perinatal Transmission
Track 15-2 Postnatal Transmission
Track 15-3 Prevention of STD Transmission
Track 15-4 Pregnancy Care and Treatment

Track 16 : Paediatric STDs
Sexually transmitted diseases are an important cause of morbidity in paediatric patients. The transmission occurs via transplacental, intrapartum, and postpartum exposure. When an infant contracts disease from mother, it can affect the skin, eyes, mouth, central nervous system, and can also lead to organ failure. With treatment, the chances of transmitting HIV from mother to infant is low. Proper awareness, treatment and diagnosis is needed to prevent the transmission of STDs among young people.

Track 16-1 Clinical Manifestation
Track 16-2 Early Diagnosis
Track 16-3 Risk Factors
Track 16-4 Preventive Measures

Track 17 : Multimorbidities and Complications
Multimorbidities are the presence of two or more chronic diseases at the same time. Super infection or re-infection is the condition where a person with HIV infection acquires infection with the sub-type of HIV. Re-infection affects the treatment which can deteriorate the health of the affected individual. The STD affected individual suffers from other social and emotional complications which may also have adverse effects in the health of the individual. Multiple morbidities associated with the disease causes more damage to the health as the immune system would be compromised by the STD.

Track 17-1 Opportunistic Infection
Track 17-2 Superinfection/Reinfection
Track 17-3 Behavioral Complications
Track 17-4 Social Complications

Track 18 : Public Awareness and Knowledge of STDs
Educational and awareness programs must be conducted to improve the public knowledge about the sexually transmitted diseases. People affected by sexually transmitted diseases have dramatically increased, millions of people are affected by the disease due to lack of awareness. Public must be aware about the impact of STDs on the lives of the affected people and the importance of preventing, screening and treating STDs. Poor knowledge about the STDs lead to increased health issues such as ectopic pregnancies, infertility and other complications. It is a major health issue that affects mostly young people, not only in developing countries but in developed countries also.

Track 18-1 Impact of STDs
Track 18-2 STD Screening
Track 18-3 Risk Awareness
Track 18-4 Prevention Education
Track 18-5 Community Awareness

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