Building Blocks of Reading for Older Students: Presented by Dr. Mary Dahlgren. The building blocks of reading are the same for all readers, but they look different at different ages. In this session, we'll take a look at how the understanding of speech sounds (phonology), letter patterns (orthography), and meaningful word parts (morphology) impact reading for upper elementary and middle school readers. Students are often unaware that words are made up of meaningful parts, which can cause them to struggle with vocabulary and comprehension. Teachers will learn systematic and explicit ways to address these building blocks in the classroom, improving reading for all students.